Forward or Rear Facing Pushchair or Pram? What is the Best Direction for Baby Stroller/Buggy Orientation?

Forward or Rear Facing Pushchair or Pram? What is the Best Direction for Baby Stroller/Buggy Orientation?

Pushchairs are generally used for babies, toddlers and young children up to the age of three and occasionally four years old. The overwhelming majority of baby transportation carriages available today are the stroller (U.S.) or buggy/ pushchair (U.K.) which place the child facing the direction of travel. This is a relatively new trend; only a couple of decades ago children were generally pushed in an old style pram, in which the baby would look at the person pushing, usually its parent.

Many parenting books have suggested that the rear-facing pram is better for the baby because of the opportunity for interaction with the parent; until recently, however, there was no specific research into this. “‘What’s life in a baby buggy like?’ The impact of buggy orientation on parent-infant interaction and infant stress” by Dr Suzanne Zeedyk was ground breaking being the first investigation by psychologists into children’s experience of pushchairs, as described by its subtitle.

The research was conducted throughout the U.K. in two parts. First, 2722 parent-child pairs were observed on High Streets in 54 towns, the social interactions were systematically documented and analysed. Second, 20 mother-infant pairs were closely monitored examining interactions and indicators of stress.

The research results were inline with existing knowledge. The report concludes that children benefit from facing and interacting with the person pushing them (usually the parent); that children facing forward may be emotionally impoverished and isolated.

Why are Forward Facing Strollers Prevalent?

  • Economical; they are generally, but not always, the     cheapest models

  • Compact; suitable for storage in small apartments and     car boots

  • Light weight; suitable for lifting into the car

  • Fashion; some models are marketed as extremely stylish     or funky

  • Stimulating; an idea that children will enjoy or     benefit from viewing the world

Are Forward Facing or Rear Facing Buggies Beneficial?

Infants facing forwards were twice as likely to be asleep, which contradicts any notion that children are enjoying looking at the world around them. The Zeedyk tentatively suggests sleeping may be an indication of stress. The children facing the parent are more likely to be awake, enjoying stimulation and experience quantitively more interaction with the adult. Furthermore, the report explains that children need to see the adult’s face to help understand the world around them.

The research was published by Talk to Your Baby, a campaign run by the National Literacy Trust which is based on the assumption that talking to young children will enhance their lives by improving their communication skills. Brain’s develop at the greatest rate during the first three years of human life; it is, therefore, suggested that people benefit greatly from interacting during infancy with adults

How to Properly Fillet a Fish for the Table

Fishing is a rewarding experience, from the thrill of the pursuit of the fish to the fighting and landing of the fish. Perhaps even more rewarding, however, is being able to take a freshly caught fish and turn it into a home cooked meal. As daunting as it may seem, cleaning a fish for the table by filleting is surprisingly easy. By following a few easy steps, it is quite simple to turn a fresh fish into the genesis of a fresh meal in a matter of minutes.

The first order of business is to acquire the necessary utensils. Of course, a good quality fillet knife with an appropriate blade length is paramount. It is suggested that a fillet knife have a blade of at least the width of the fish to be filleted. Another necessary element in the process is a good sturdy surface to perform the filleting process. Something with a good texture such as a wooden board will suffice; it’s important that the fish does not slide around while being cleaned. There are other items that can make filleting easier, but for the sake of this article, the list of supplies will be kept basic.

To begin the process, take the fish and lay it out horizontally with its belly facing towards you. Next, make an incision behind the pectoral fin at a 45 degree angle to the head, cutting until the knife touches the spine. The knife has reached this area when cutting becomes difficult. Turn the blade of the knife towards the tail of the fish and begin slowly cutting, following the backbone along the way. With some fish, it may be difficult to cut through the rib bones. If this is the case, try to go around them. Continue cutting towards the tail with the blade following the backbone as a guide until the blade reaches the tail and the fillet has been separated from the fish. Repeat this process on the other side of the fish.

Now that the fillets of edible meat have been removed, the fish carcass can be discarded. Skinning the fillets is optional, but many prefer a skinless fillet. To remove the skin, take a fillet and lay it with the skin side down. Get a firm grip on the narrowest part of the fillet that was once joined near the tail of the fish. Pliers may be necessary. Take the knife and begin gently cutting as close to the edge of the fillet being held as possible with the knife angled down toward the skin while simultaneously pulling upward on the section being held. If done properly, the fillet will separate from the skin with no loss of meat.

Now that the fish is ready to be cooked, the only thing left is to prepare and enjoy the satisfaction of making your own home cooked meal from the fish you caught.

Japanese Table Manners: Etiquette at Mealtime in Japan

Japanese etiquette has many cultural differences when contrasted with common practices in the Western world. One great cultural feature is that when you approach a typical Japanese restaurant you will usually see the main menu of foods displayed in realistic-looking plastic mock-ups in the window along with the prices. This can be very helpful in choosing your meal.

Below are a few tips to know and apply at mealtime while in Japan, or at the home of a traditional Japanese family so that you will not appear as a “Barbarian” and can feel more comfortable while you eat.

Greeting

As you enter a Japanese restaurant, the server will bow and say “Irrashaimase,” with a meaning of “welcome.” It is Japanese etiquette to bow slightly in any situation where you meet someone. If there is no one to meet you at the door, then you may assume that you can sit at the table of your choice. If the person you are meeting is important you will show respect by bowing lower than that person and holding the bow longer.

Sitting

In formal eating restaurants or as a guest in the traditional Japanese home you will be required to remove your shoes at the door and add slippers if they are provided for you by the host. When you come to tatami woven straw mat, you must also remove your slippers and wear only socks or go bare-footed.

If you need to visit the restroom, you will remove normal slippers at the bathroom and replace them with slippers worn only in the bathroom, replacing your slippers when you come out.

You may be required to sit on a pillow on the floor under a low table. A Japanese person used to this formal custom sits tightly on their haunches; their feet tucked under them for a long amount of time (seiza), but a foreigner probably cannot stay in this position for more than a few minutes. If a woman, you may need to put your legs to one side as you sit on your haunches on the pillow. A man may sit cross-legged.

The most important person is seated furthest from the entrance, while the host is next to the entrance.

Using Chopsticks

Chopsticks (o-hashi) are fairly easy to use. Practice using them at home with a variety of foods, including noodles. Japanese chopsticks are rounded, usually made of lacquered wood, and about an inch shorter than Chinese chopsticks. Holding the chopsticks near their ends (opposite of pointing ends) place one chopstick in your right hand like a pen, this chopstick is anchored against the bottom of the area between your thumb and index finger. The other chopstick is also placed between the thumb and index finger, but it moves, using the index and middle fingers to maneuver it.

  • Never set down your chopsticks in the rice. This     potentially forms a “V,” which is the character for death. When needing to     set them down, place them together in front of you with the points facing     to your left.

  • Do not spear food with your chopsticks.

  • You may use your chopsticks to pick up a larger piece     of food, take a bite, and set the piece of food back down.

  • Do not motion, point, or wave with your chopsticks.

  • Use the opposite ends of the chopsticks to remove food     from a common dish.

  • Spoons are used with some rice-and-sauce dishes such as     Curry Rice (kare risu). Chinese-style ceramic spoons are used with     some soups.

Eating

Often when you sit down you will be brought a wash towel for cleaning your hands, do not use it on your face. You will also be brought water or tea for no charge.

When you begin a meal it is polite to say: “Itadakimasu,” or “I humbly receive.” At the end of the meal one says “Gochisosama deshita,” more or less “Thank you for the meal.” Compliment your host or cook on the food, by saying something like “Oishikatta desu, ” meaning “it was delicious.”

Hold your rice bowl in your left hand and lift the bowl toward your mouth, scooping it into your mouth, if necessary. Japanese is easy to eat with chopsticks as it sticks together more than other types of rice. Finish every grain of rice given to you. Do not pour soy sauce, or any other sauce into a bowl of white rice.

Miso soup is sipped from the bowl, with the help of chopsticks for particles of food.

A small amount of noodles are scooped and held by the chopsticks. Slurp these noodles into your mouth without letting any noodles fall back into the bowl. Slurping noises are good etiquette in Japan while eating noodles. A ceramic spoon may be provided to help drink the liquid, otherwise, lift the bowl to your mouth and sip the broth.

Blowing your nose and burping in public is considered rude in Japan.

You should pour a small amount of soy sauce into a small dish given to you with sushi. If eating sushi that has raw fish on the top (nigiri zushi), dip into the soy sauce with the fish side down so that the rice does not fall apart. Don’t insult the chef by using too much hot wasabi or soy sauce. Try to eat the sushi in one bite.

Tipping

A great thing to know: you do not leave tips in Japan—not for anything! If eating at a Japanese restaurant in a country that tips, however, be sure to leave an adequate tip.